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Feb 5th, Posted by BITimothy on Feb 5th, Posted by JorgeDer on Feb 5th, The late-modernist architecture, with its very bad reputation of a chaotic and dangerous space, has nowadays almost no defenders.

And the methods which are used for identifying the objects for preservation from previous epochs, appear not to be valid for the late-modernism. Therefore I have started a search for a new approach, which would identify not only the architectural values, but also their influence on culture. In case of Moscow, with its very strong artistic movement of Moscow Conceptualism, it was tempting to see if there is any connection between this kind of art and the architecture of a Rayon a basic sleeping district.

Establishing the link between art and architecture would definitely reinforce the latter. The speech was not more than a summation of architectural processes which had been developing earlier, i. The urban landscape, which was its product, appeared to be very different from what had been built so far.

Vast spaces, huge distances, abstract shapes of buildings which were more objects in space then houses, are the main features of this new environment. It is also very important to understand, that this new landscape, in time of only one generation became the dominating one in Soviet cities. The Moscow Conceptualism, which appeared more or less when the first huge sleeping districts were built, from the point of view of an architect, appears to have a lot in common with the Rayon. During my research I was trying to prove certain links between the new landscape of a Rayon and the Conceptual art.

I would assume the emptiness of the Rayon was influential on the work of the conceptualists. Dmitri Prigov was referring to the emptiness of Belyayevo. When reading through the verses of the famous poem about the Militiaman, one can imagine him somewhere in the Rayon, trapped between its endless space and the sky. Finally, Prigov was calling the district his Duchy.

Prigov was inspired by the spaciousness of his own neighborhood. The wastelands between buildings he was calling his realms, and himself — the duke. The abundance of space in Belyayevo had also very practical consequences. The conceptual artists also seem to have been fascinated with the modernist rationality. Geometry and digits many times constitute the language of their works. Probably, if not this modernist landscape, conceptual art would not appear in the same form.

It may be a sufficient reason to try to preserve parts of this architecture. How should we preserve those fragile yet characteristic features? What is the right approach? There are many questions how to deal with those key features. One of the immanent features of the Rayon is its totality. Is it possible to propose partial preservation for something as total and holistic as a Rayon? The Rayon consists of objects: buildings, being a product of the process of optimization.

The task of an architect was largely limited to creation of the most perfect composition of those objects. How to deal with that, what to preserve?


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Only the geometry and general composition, or the objects themselves? The repetitiveness also seemingly calls for another approach. Until now only unique buildings where in focus of attention of preservationists. So what can we do with the mass produced architecture, where not only buildings but the whole spatial organization was repeated tens of times? In projects always designed as an attractive green area, in reality the humongous spaces between buildings many times were becoming huge chunks of nothingness.

Should this emptiness be preserved? Newspapers, being a logical and hierarchical distribution of information, were often used by Prigov as a background of his graphics.

Prigov was also working with objects, this is for me another analogy with architecture. The architects of those times had a catalogue of ready architectural solutions, which they were composing in space. The conceptual artists objectified the language, the words became objects. Using a typewriter, he was able to, by using words as objects, create totally new compositions.

Many times those words-objects have been endlessly repeated. The use of a typewriter allowed him to repeat the same words, analogically to architects who thanks to prefabrication could repeat buildings. This repetitiveness may be found virtually everywhere. In his poetry he is many times repeating the same words the poem about the Militiaman.

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The background of his graphics also is repetitive for me the most interesting case is the background being reminiscent of a typical flat in a prefab building. In my opinion also the total approach in the construction is reflected by the total approach in art. The installations, which appeared in the early eighties, are the best illustration. Due to the difficulties with exhibiting art, the conceptual artists were using their flats as exhibition spaces.

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In Irina Nakhova painted the walls and the floor of her apartment. Therefore she created a new kind of object, an image, into which one can walk. For him, the total installation is a materialization of a method already known in fine arts — entering into the picture. Architects and urban designers have worked with computer scientists and ethnologists who are specialized in the relation of man-to-machine in the development of new technologies for this project.

The objective was to experiment with mixed reality technologies as tools for different urban applications.

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For computer scientists, the challenge was to develop mobile tools to be used in different environments and accessible to lay users. This would allow getting the technologies out of the protected frame of scientific laboratories, technologically well equipped and connected, and managed by researchers.

For urban planners and architects, the project was an opportunity to take part in the design of new tools for urban projects and practices. IP City ambition was to offer the participants to a project or an event — may they be professionals or simple citizens — the means to explore an urban situation and to discuss about it. The technologies allow their users to benefit from a series of different kinds of interaction with the environment and with other people to engage in collaborative processes.

IP City experimented with mixed reality technologies MR in four different urban situations: as collaborative tools in urban projects, as communication tools in urban events, as interfaces in educational city games and storytelling activities.

Architects and urban planners have participated to the project from the beginning which allowed the research team to take into account urban issues as well as technical specifications for the development of the first prototypes. These prototypes have been developed to be used in the early stages of the project process, prior to architectural or urban design in response to specific needs and problems. Urban representations generated by the fusion of the virtual and the real environments with the help of these technologies have been one of the principal subjects of research.

Applications to urban project One of the urban situations explored in this project concern the coproduction of urban projects. Urban planners work everyday with a greater number of stakeholders, may they be experts or not, who may be regrouped under three titles: public authorities, experts architects, engineers, but also economic and financial partners for example and citizens who are involved all along the process at varying degrees public enquiries, information and participation processes.

Interactive and real time exchanges are characteristics of MR tools that allow stakeholders to work in collaborative ways which correspond to the evolution of project making practices.

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An experimental and evolutionary device IP City project is founded on periodical experimentations and workshops that contribute to the development of the tools, to the testing of the prototypes and to the evaluation of their impact on real urban situations. Each year a site and a project have been chosen and experimentation scenarios have been elaborated together with local stakeholders local authorities, urban planners and designers, inhabitants and city users….

These preliminary exchanges have allowed for a better understanding of the main issues concerning the site and the project in question controversial topics, priorities and expectations and have assured the participation and the engagement of these stakeholders to the workshops. The two first workshops concerned the refurbishment of Sainte-Anne psychiatric hospital in Paris. Communication issues emerge as an important issue within this context.

How do stakeholders who have different professional cultures and socio-economical priorities and who use different languages and vocabularies to express themselves communicate?

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One of the responses seem to be to adopt interactive languages to represent the city and urban projects. These languages should allow stakeholders to understand a complex urban situation, to discuss and to collaborate on different urban issues concerning both space and time. A number of research projects investigate the possible use of NTIC for the creation of this new language. For IP City, the aim is to study the possibilities offered by MR technologies to better communication and representation issues in collaborative work environments.

The notion of Mixed Reality refers to the mixing of virtual computer generated elements with the real environment the urban site and or its reproduction through pictures or videos. The relation between the real and the virtual corresponds in this case to the relation between the actual urban situation and the virtual potential of the site, its future development, ie. The implications of this action on the operation of the hospital is one of the questions that are of importance. The partial demolition of the surrounding walls which are part of the historical heritage is another.

The project was at programming stage when the workshop has taken place.